Mountains of the Caucasus

Flowers on the mountain peaks
Greater Caucasus. Baksan Gorge in Kabardino-Balkaria.

The Caucasus is a physical-geographical country and region in the south-west of Asia, between the Black and Caspian seas.

It includes the mountains of the Greater Caucasus (1,500 km long, the highest peak is Mount Elbrus, 5,642 m) and the Lesser Caucasus (750 km long, the highest peak is Mount Aragats, 4,090 m), as well as the depression located between them, called the Riono-Kurinsky Depression, the Black Sea and the Caspian coast of the Caucasus, the Stavropol Upland, part of the Caspian Lowland in Dagestan and the Kuban-Priazov Lowland to the left bank of the Don River near its mouth.

The word “Caucasus” is often called only the Greater Caucasus, as the region’s most impressive mountains in height and length. The valleys of the Riono-Kurinsk depression and the Lesser Caucasus are united under the name “Transcaucasia”.

Geographic boundaries of the region

In the west – the Black and Azov Seas, in the east – the Caspian. To the north extends the East European Plain. The border between it and the foothills of the Caucasus coincides with the border of Europe and Asia, passing along the Kuma River, the bottom of the Kumo-Manych depression, the Vostochny Manyich and Manych rivers, then along the left bank of the Don below the mouth of Manych.

The southern border is the Araks River, beyond which the Iranian and Armenian Highlands are located, and the Chorokh River, beyond which the Pontic Mountains of the Asia Minor Peninsula begin.

States of the region

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