The test (test) is carried out in hiking trips in accordance with age requirements. For participants of the III, VIII – IX steps of the complex, the length of the pedestrian crossing is 5 km, IV – V, VII steps of the complex – 10 km, VI steps of the complex – 15 km. In a hiking trip, tourist knowledge and skills are tested: laying a backpack, orienting yourself on the map and compass, setting up a tent, making a fire, ways to overcome obstacles. List of things for a trip in the summer. Passport (ticket, money). Map. Compass. Matches. Backpack. Men the backpack must be at least 80 liters. Female – about 60 liters. Tent. The tent should be strong, stable and waterproof. The ideal option is a two-layer tent on metal arches with a tent made of “silicone”. Sleeping bag. Tourism mat (foam, karemat). Telescopic trekking poles. This is something like folding ski poles. They are very helpful in hiking, as they remove part of the load from the legs. You can install a tent on the track sticks. You can use small ski poles (110 – 120 cm) as a replacement for expensive trekking poles. Raincoat. Jacket – windbreaker. Headwear. Socks. Mug, bowl, spoon. Towel. Soap. Empty plastic bottle. LED flashlight. First-aid kit. A first-aid kit should be lightweight and at the same time versatile. We need peroxide, brilliant green, bandage, a patch (bactericidal and ordinary). Cold medications, activated charcoal, and something for the stomach may be needed. Elastic bandage. Camera. Mobile phone. Compass – a device that facilitates orientation on the ground by pointing to the cardinal points. The principle of operation is based on the interaction of the compass’s permanent magnet field with the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field. A freely rotating magnetic arrow rotates around its axis, located along the lines of force of the magnetic field. Thus, the arrow is always parallel to the direction of the magnetic field line. Adrianov’s compass (magnetic compass) Vladimir Nikolaevich Adrianov.
Russian military cartographer, compass designer, artist, author of the coat of arms of the USSR.
The Adrianov’s compass consists of a case in the center of which a magnetic needle is placed on the tip of the needle. In the free state, the northern end of the arrow is set (not exactly) in the direction to the North Magnetic Pole, and the southern – to the South Magnetic Pole.
In the idle state, the arrow is fixed with a brake (arrestor).
A circular dial (limb) is placed inside the compass case, divided into 120 divisions. The price of one division is 3 °, or 50 small divisions of the angle meter (0-50). The scale has double digitization. The internal digitization is applied clockwise from 0 to 360 ° after 15 ° (5 divisions of the scale). External digitization of the scale is applied counterclockwise through 5 large divisions of the goniometer (10 divisions of the scale).
For sighting on local objects (landmarks) and taking readings on the compass scale, a sighting device (front sight and rear sight) is fixed on the rotating compass ring.
Azimuth (direction) is the horizontal angle measured clockwise from the north direction of the compass needle to the direction to the selected object. Azimuth is measured in degrees from 0 ° to 360 °. The bearing direction is determined using a compass. To determine the azimuth, release the brake of the magnetic needle and turn the compass in a horizontal plane until the northern end of the arrow is set against zero scale division. Then, without changing the compass position, set the sighting device so that the line of sight through the rear sight and front sight coincides with the direction The position of the front sight on the scale corresponds to the magnitude of the determined magnetic azimuth of the direction to the selected object. Driving in azimuth consists in determining the desired direction of movement in a given azimuth on the ground and maintaining that direction when moving. How to find the way back to KOMPAS – HOME If you are going to go to the forest and want to go back using the compass, you first need to ” attach “to the terrain – choose a landmark to which you need to return. The reference point for the return should be linear and long enough – it can be a road along the house, a familiar river or the closest closest to the house. Now you need to stand facing the landmark, look directly at it, and if the compass is on your hand, remove it from your hand. Next, start turning the compass until the north arrow coincides with 0 degrees on the compass scale. Without turning in place ( still look at the selected landmark) mentally (you can put a stick on the compass), draw a line from the center of the compass to the landmark (home).
We determine the azimuth, in accordance with which we will return back to the landmark (to the house).
Azimuth is the angle (in degrees) between the north direction and the clock direction. We remember (write down) this angle (the number on the scale through which the stick passed, for example – 330 degrees). We remove the compass and go to the forest. When it is time to return home, we take out the compass. We turn it until the north arrow matches the number 0. We draw a line or stick between the center of the compass and the recorded number (in our example – 330 degrees), which will be the direction (azimuth) back to housework. While we go back to the house several times we check the azimuth of movement. Of course, you will not fall exactly at the point of entry into the forest, but you will return for sure to the road to the house (the chosen reference point).